9.6 Analogical and literal language
The previous section has presented some analogies for how we might be related
to the divine. In some traditions of religious philosophy, such as that of Aquinas,
this is all that can be given. According to him, we talk about love with humans
and love with God, but these are not strictly the same thing. Rather, God has something
that is like the love that we know. It is sufficiently like love that we
do call it love, but it is strictly distinct. Terms in his theology are not univocal,
but analogous. This is not the same as the apophatic theology mentioned in Chapter
7, but it would mean that any theistic science would be difficult,
since the terms we would use would not properly refer to God.
Duns Scotus (1265-1308) was one opponent of Aquinas on this
issue. Scotus holds that being is a univocal notion applicable to everything
that exists without restriction. This to return to the position of Parmenides, for
whom being is the central concept. According to Scotus, we should be able to unequivocally
describe God with terms such as being, love and wisdom. Scotus view has become
the dominant view in later Western history, and we will need it within theistic
science. We should try to avoid using analogies at the most fundamental level of
explanation. That should not blind us, however, to the crucial role of analogies
in learning new ideas concerning nature and divinity.
In fact, some analogies are so important that they link not just our ideas, but
also nature and divinity themselves. We call these relations correspondences.
Part IV will explain how such relations are more than analogies
and how they are important descriptions of structures and dynamics within theism.
And, using theistic science, we will unequivocally describe things related by such
correspondences and then see why the various analogies do hold. In this
way we will have the univocal language of Scotus, while simultaneously agreeing
with Aquinas that particular analogies are essential to understanding the relations
between divinity and created things.